Tuesday, February 10, 2015

The Busy Life of a Worker Bee

Have you ever wondered what it would be like to be a bee inside a hive? Well, for the female worker bees, it is pretty busy! Just like there are many different jobs that people do in our world today, there are different jobs worker bees do in their hive. From the day they are born until the moment they die, they really are “busy little bees” working to build and better their beehive. Each worker has five main jobs she completes in her lifetime of 3-5 weeks, and she instinctively knows when it’s time to switch to each job.  

A newly hatched worker bee

1. Housekeeping 
Her work begins right after she hatches out of her cell. She turns around and begins cleaning out her cell, preparing it for the queen to lay a new egg. As a housekeeping bee, she will continue to clean the hive, taking out anything that does not belong inside the beehive.  

A nurse bee feeding baby bee larvae

2. Nurse
Her job as a nurse bee begins when she develops special glands in her head that help her make food for the queen and baby bees. These glands are called hypopharyngeal glands and produce a milky-white substance called royal jelly. As a nurse bee, she helps feed and care for the young larvae or baby bees and gets to serve in the queen’s court where she cares for and feeds the queen bee.

3. Wax

Her next job as a worker bee requires her to make beeswax to build new cells and repair old cells. How does she make the wax? When she eats honey, her body produces wax from eight wax glands located on her abdomen. The wax flakes off, and she forms it into the perfect hexagon shapes you see in honeycomb. She will also store nectar and pollen that other worker bees bring into the hive by packing it into the wax cells.


Worker bees guarding the entrance of their hive 
4. Guard

As a guard bee, a worker bee will stay at the entrance of the hive, defending it from any invaders such as wasps or predators like skunks. Honey bees easily recognize bees from their own hive by scent and will chase away any bee not from their hive. Guard bees release an alarm pheromone to warn their hive when there is an intruder. Pheromones are scents (much like perfume) that the bees release from their bodies to communicate with each other. The guards also help cool the hive down when it gets hot by fanning their wings to move air throughout the hive.


5. Forager

A worker's last job as a foraging bee is when she finally gets to leave the hive and fly out to gather food and supplies. She will work from sunup to sundown visiting flowers to gather nectar and pollen. Did you know that honey bees actually collect more than just nectar and pollen? They also collect water to help cool the hive if it’s hot and tree sap to make propolis, which is sticky bee glue. 

A worker bee collects nectar and pollen from flowers

In between jobs, worker bees may also serve the hive by helping with various tasks, such as removing dead bees from the hive, making propolis and applying it in the hive, and fanning nectar to evaporate water from it. 

Worker honey bees are very committed to their different jobs, working until their wings are so torn they can no longer fly. The jobs performed by each bee may be small, but by working together and contributing their part, honey bees can have a strong and healthy hive.

Saturday, January 10, 2015

2015 Representatives Crowned in Anaheim

The new American Honey Queen and Princess were selected at the 2015 American Beekeeping Federation Convention in Anaheim, California.

2015 American Honey Queen
Gabrielle Hemesath from Iowa

2015 American Honey Princess
Hayden Wolf from Texas

They will posting interesting articles around bees and honey throughout their year. Keep an eye out for the sweetest representatives in America!

2015 American Honey Queen Gabrielle Hemesath &
2015 American Honey Princess Hayden Wolf

Thursday, January 1, 2015

Bee Sense

Have you ever wondered what the world would look like if you were an insect? In your everyday life, you use your five senses (taste, touch, hearing, smell and sight) to learn about the world around you. An insect’s body works differently from yours and that changes the way they learn about the world around them.

Front view of a proboscis 

Taste: A bee’s sense of taste depends on receptors in her antennae. She can tell the difference between bitter, sweet, salty, and sour. If she likes the taste, she will extend her proboscis and begin to feed.

Touch: A bee’s sense of touch is similar to a human. They often use their antennae to measure cells and also touch each other during bee dances.

Hearing: Although most insects do not have ears to hear, they are able to “hear” sound around them because of the vibrations in the air. A bee is covered in very sensitive hairs which alert her to vibrations in the air. Worker bees can “hear” a scout bee buzzing as she tells them where food can be found.

A honey bee releasing pheromones to guide other bees home

Smell: Honeybees use chemical smells called pheromones to communicate with each other and identify bees that belong in their hive. A honeybee does not have a nose; instead, she uses special receptors in her antenna to decipher what pheromones are around her.   

Sight: Unlike humans, honeybees 
Comparison of human and bee visible light
have compound eyes with thousands of individual light receptors. This means that instead of seeing the world as one picture, bees see many individual dots of color placed together. It is similar to the way a television screen projects a picture. A honeybee’s compound eyes also see a different color range than humans, making it difficult to see red but allowing them to see ultraviolet light. A honeybee also has three additional simple eyes located on the top of her head. A bee cannot use these simple eyes, called ocelli, to see color. They can only see the difference between dark and light with these eyes which helps bees navigate.

Bees are amazing insects with very intricate bodies. They perceive the world differently than we do and use their senses to keep their hive happy and healthy.

Monday, December 1, 2014

The Science Behind the Shelf Life

Honey has been used throughout history for eating, cooking, medicine, and more. Honey is a healthy, versatile food, and many people have prized this sweet treat. Ancient Egyptians were one group of people who enjoyed using honey in everyday life. While excavating Ancient Egyptian tombs recently, archaeologists have found honey in pots left by those from older times. The honey was thousands of years old, yet, the food remained unspoiled and preserved. What is it that makes honey such a special food?

Honey is the only food that never spoils. Many factors contribute to this including its lack of water, its acidity, and the presence of hydrogen peroxide in honey. Without any of these factors, honey could not remain preserved for eternity. All three of those factors work in perfect and complete harmony to make the sweet golden liquid have a never ending shelf life. 

The first factor, its lack of water, comes from honey’s chemical makeup. Honey is a natural sugar. Sugars are hygroscopic, which means that sugars contain very little water in their natural state but could readily suck up lots of moisture if left unsealed. Because honey is a sugar, it has a hygroscopic nature. How does this help honey stay preserved? Bacteria need a moist environment to grow and honey doesn’t have a moist enough environment for bacteria to grow. Bacteria that enter foods and make them spoil can’t grow in honey. There has to be something in the honey jars to make them spoil and with such a inhospitable environment for bacteria, organisms can’t live long enough to spoil our precious sweet treat!

Not only is honey hygroscopic, but it’s also acidic. Naturally, honey has a pH range of roughly 3 - 4.5. This is why you always hear that when cooking with honey, it’s always good to add baking soda to your recipe. It's because of honey’s acidic pH! This pH is so acidic that most bacteria or organisms cannot survive. Honey is just not a good home to bacteria or organisms, but it’s great in our pantry. 

There are other hygroscopic foods out there with relatively low pHs. Why does honey remain unspoiled and not other foods such as molasses? This brings us to our last important factor, the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Here’s where our lovely little girls come in, the honeybees! Nectar, which is collected from the bees to make honey, is naturally high in water content. The bees remove much of that water, once inside the hive, by flapping their wings to literally dehydrate it. On top of the dehydrating, the bees also add something special to the product. Honeybees add an enzyme that adds to honey’s resilience. This enzyme is called glucose oxidase. When the bees deposit the nectar from their mouths into the beeswax combs to make honey, the enzyme mixes with the nectar. Once mixed with the nectar, the enzyme breaks down into two by-products: gluconic acid and hydrogen peroxide. Then, hydrogen peroxide also goes to work against possible spoiling agents in the honey.  For this reason, honey has been used for medical remedies and has been a cherished, long-lasting food. The hydrogen peroxide, combined with honey’s thickness, allows for the rejection of any kind of bacteria growth, and it creates the perfect barrier against the infection of wounds. 

Although honey is a super food, there is one extra factor you want to keep in mind--the seal of your honey. If you leave honey out with no seal in a humid environment, the moisture can’t be controlled and honey will spoil. This is why even inside the beehive, honeybees cap over their honey-filled cells with beeswax to preserve it! If no water is added to the honey and you keep the lid tightly on the jar, you’ve got a shelf life that will last way beyond a lifetime!

Saturday, November 1, 2014

Bee Beards

What would you think if you saw a beard made out of live bees? Maybe you have seen a beekeeper do a bee beard at a festival, fair, or other event or you might have seen photos or videos of one. Have you ever wondered how a bee beard works?

Ready to wear some bees!
Bee beards are an amazing sight and a wonderful demonstration of how gentle our honeybees truly are. Bee beards also show us just how important the queen’s pheromones are to the hive, since it is her smell which causes the bees to cluster on the beekeepers face to form the bee beard.
First, a box of bees is prepared as an artificial swarm with the queen contained in a small screened cage. The person who will be wearing the beard is prepared by ensuring any jewelry or hair that would get in the way is contained and that he/she is not wearing any scents which would bother the bees.

Next, the queen cage is tied underneath the chin so that the bees will be able to smell her pheromones through the screen. A box full of worker bees is then shaken out onto a tray or barber cape worn by the person wearing the beard.  

Because the worker bees can smell the queen in the cage, they all climb up and cluster around her and form the beard of bees.
The bees beginning to cluster
Forming a fuller beard 

To remove the bee beard, the queen cage is taken off and then the rest of the bees are removed when the person wearing the beard jumps up and shakes the bees back into their box.

Wearing a bee beard feels electric! It feels funny because of all of the legs clinging to your face and the bees produce a lot of heat. It’s very neat to see how quickly the bees react to the queen pheromone and how gentle they remain throughout the whole process. Wearing a bee beard is an amazing experience and a lot of fun! 

Wednesday, October 1, 2014

Beeswax and the Arts

Beeswax is used in many things like cosmetics and candles, and it is also used in the arts! Beeswax is used to make beautiful encaustic paintings, detailed sculptures and sweet-smelling candles.  

Beeswax is a natural wax that is produced by honeybees. Worker honeybees have four pairs of wax glands (eight total glands) on their abdomens that produce the wax. The wax flakes off their abdomen, and the honeybees form it into cells. Honeybees use wax to build their homes or hives making honeycomb with the hexagonal shaped cells out of the wax. They store everything in these cells like larvae or baby bees,
nectar, pollen, and honey. Beekeepers melt old wax or old comb into wax blocks.

Encaustic painting is better known as a hot wax painting. The paintings are very beautiful and really show the versatility of beeswax. Normally, encaustic painters melt beeswax to use in creating and molding their beautiful paintings. Equipment like metal tools and special brushes are used to sculpt the wax. Once it's cooled, encaustic painters begin creating their art. Encaustic paintings aren’t just sculpted, they can be painted as well. The natural wax makes bright, vivid colors when mixed with other color waxes. Did you know that some of the first encaustic paintings were seen around 100-300AD in the Fayum mummy portraits from Egypt? 

Not only is beeswax used in encaustic paintings, it can be used to create some amazing sculptures! Beeswax is really easy to use when hand molding a sculpture or pouring the wax into molds to create models and figures. Since the Middle Ages and ancient Rome, sculptors have used beeswax because it cuts easily, melts at a low temperature (so you don’t need a special oven or kiln to melt it), and it can be colored. Once molded into a gorgeous sculpture, beeswax will hold up well against age. In ancient Rome, they used beeswax to make death masks to be buried with the elite or royal. Who knew beeswax had so much history?

The wick and wax that you'll need
to make your candle!
Starting to roll your candle. 

A really fun and easy DIY project with beeswax is to roll your own candle! You can buy pre-melted beeswax sheets and wicks at any large beekeeping supplier (Dadant, Glorybee, etc). They sell a rainbow of colors that can brighten up your room or even make a neat, thoughtful gift for Christmas or Mother’s Day. Once you have the sheet of wax, cut the wax with a pizza cutter or scissors into four long sheets in order to make four candles (you can cut the wax smaller or larger if needed). Next, take the wick and measure it against the width of the wax edge and cut the wick, with scissors, so a little extra wick can stick out of the wax. The extra wick sticking out will how you light your candle! After this, press the wick into the far edge of the wax and roll a little bit of the wax over the top so the wick is completely covered except the part of the wick that will burn. Now comes the easy part! Continue rolling up the candle while keeping the edges straight. Maintain pressure to make sure your candle stays tight. The tighter you roll your candle, the longer it will burn. Even candle-making can be an art! The number one thing to remember is that anyone can try using beeswax in their arts and crafts. The main goal of artwork is to “bee” creative. 
The finished rolled candle. You can make them many shapes and sizes. 

Monday, September 1, 2014

Honey in History

Many people think of  honey simply as a delicious food or sweetener. Throughout history, however, honey proves to be much more than a simple food. It is true that honey is one of the oldest sweeteners known to man and still widely popular today, but it is also an important cultural, religious, and mythological symbol.
Many different types of honey
The great diversity of honey flavors and textures available makes honey an extremely valuable staple in the kitchen. Honey has found its way onto our plates in many different forms and can be found in every type of food we consume, from appetizers to desserts, and everything in between. Honey is used in a wide range of recipes where it is prized as an all-natural sweetener as well as for its unique flavor contribution. There are more than 300 different varieties of honey produced in the United States and approximately 3,000 varieties worldwide.

An ancient cave painting
showing honey harvesting
Honey plays an important role as both a cultural and religious symbol;  it is often used to represent prosperity and wellbeing. References to honey are found in the Bible, the Koran, the Torah and other religious books. Some Greek mythology states that honey was the substance into which Cupid dipped his arrows, and mead (alcohol made from honey) has been called “the nectar of the gods.”
In ancient science and medicine, honey was appreciated for its unique healing properties. Some of the earliest known medical writings, including the Ebers Papyrus, include honey as an important ingredient in many remedies.
Burn cream made with honey
Today, honey is used to heal burns and wounds, treat allergies, fight infection and soothe sore throats. The antibacterial properties of Manuka honey have been studied at Universities in New Zealand for over 20 years, and its effectiveness in treating MRSA is still being studied. Honey is also a key ingredient in many cosmetic and beauty products.
Honey has a special place throughout history, and it continues to play an important role in many different cultures and religions. Honey has been a part of earliest history, and it remains at the forefront of new research and developments. Honey is a product with both a rich past and a bright future.